Suicide Mortality and Coronavirus Disease 2019—A Perfect Storm? Another concern that COVID-19 raises in addition to potential supply chain disruptions is the possibility that people may use or misuse kratom in an attempt to inoculate themselves from COVID-19 infection or to self-treat the various symptoms associated with COVID-19, despite no scientific support for kratom use in such a manner (20, 21). Healthcare professionals have an important role in educating patients about the common psychological effects of a pandemic. In: Europol EMCfDaDAa, editor. Drug Alcohol Depend. Frontiers in Neuroanatomy Impact Factor, IF, number of article, detailed information and journal factor. (2017) 176:63–70. Brain Behav Immun (2020) 0889–1591(20):30643–7. First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicide prevention strategies. Telemedicine for COVID-19. Chan SM, Chiu FK, Lam CW, Leung PY, Conwell Y. Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care (2020) 9(3):241–7. In line with this, rogue/illicit pharmaceutical products, such as benzodiazepines, has also reportedly doubled their prices in some areas (24). Psychiatry, 29 July 2020 Nonetheless, in the US it is estimated that 10–15 million people consume kratom primarily for the self-treatment of pain, psychiatric disorders, to mitigate withdrawal from or dependence on opioids, and to self-treat opioid use disorder or other substance use disorders (SUDs). FDA. The handling editor and two of the reviewers, JC and SC, declared a shared affiliation, though no collaboration, with two of the authors, EC and OC, at the time of review. Inadequate treatment, treatment barriers, and increases in the sales of adulterated kratom products on the internet or in convenience stores could exacerbate circumstances further. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth., Rubiaceae) is native to and has traditional use in Southeast Asia. Epidemiology for public health. Healthcare Personnel and First Responders: How to Cope with Stress and Build Resilience During the COVID-19 Pandemic (2020). Hippocampal Functional Connectivity Mediates the Impact of Acceptance on Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Severity ... and those of clinical symptom severity, suggesting that experiential acceptance is a protective factor of symptoms or an early indicator of resilience after trauma. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Citations (Scopus total) Articles published (total) ... Frontiers in Psychiatry. Covid-19 will worsen the opioid overdose crisis is we don"t prepare now (2020). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 8. Considering the potential importance of kratom as a self-treatment strategy or harm-reduction component for SUDs, an unanticipated supply disruption may lead to a rise in opioid and other drug use with subsequently increased risk for overdose and fatality. Levine DA. (2017) 180:340–8. doi: 10.1016/j.encep.2020.04.005. Volkow ND. Drug Alcohol Depend. Schifano F. Recent Changes in Drug Abuse Scenarios: The New/Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) Phenomenon. Mental health care for medical staff and affiliated healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. ISSN: 0165-1781. Previous disasters such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 (4–6) contributed to increased anxiety, mood, and thought disorders, adjustment disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) (1, 7–15), resulting, in extreme cases, in suicidal behaviours (e.g., suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and actual suicide) (10, 16), especially in cases of concomitant Substance Use Disorder (SUD) (17, 18). J Ethnopharmacol. 31. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.03.007, 10. Because of the potential public health impact of kratom scarcity and the international implications of COVID-19, the probable impact of the global pandemic on kratom availability is of significant interest in regard to consumption patterns. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.045, 29. doi: 10.7326/M20-1212. The widespread use of kratom and consistent reports of its benefits or therapeutic value that are important to users raises the question: would sudden decreases in the availability of the plant have negative impacts on kratom users? Specifically, access to community maintenance, e.g., expand methadone delivery via mobile teams for quarantined patients should be facilitated (40, 41). 20. It will also be important to raise awareness among healthcare professionals if current kratom users circumstantially experience shortages. ISSN: 1662-5129. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Drug Alcohol Depend. According to a recent study from the Well Being Trust (18) the high levels of stress, isolation and unemployment due to the COVID-19 pandemic could cause up to 75,000 “deaths of despair” related to deaths to drug, alcohol, and suicide (18). COVID-19: stress management among healthcare workers (2020). While the ongoing pandemic has created uncertainty among vendors and users about kratom availability, it has not, to date, impacted the actual availability of the product in the US. 33. The majority of vendors have not seen changes in supplies of kratom products since December 2019 although they expressed uncertainty as to whether that may change in the future if COVID-19 leads to the imposition of additional commercial restrictions. Various internet studies found that some kratom users are concerned about the possibility of relapsing to opioids and/or seeking alternative, possibly questionable, sources of kratom if products become less readily available. In such cases, regular kratom users may come to the clinical attention of healthcare professionals, possibly requiring prescribed treatment options in the absence of kratom (e.g., anxiolytics, antidepressants, analgesics, and opioid agonist therapies). Risk of death associated with kratom use compared to opioids. Similarly, due to COVID-19, manual laborers who were daily wage earners lost their income and could not afford kratom products to self-treat medical conditions. doi: 10.4088/PCC.19nr02507, 12. Requests to access these datasets should be directed to Oliver Grundmann, email@example.com. Further information is also needed to improve our understanding on how the impact of COVID-19 is affecting kratom users in terms of obtaining unadulterated kratom products, as well as other important occurrences that could affect kratom supply, patterns of use and its therapeutic popularity among users. These issues can also encourage shifts to more at-risk drug using behaviours such as use of drugs such as street benzodiazepines, and synthetic cannabinoids (31). (2020) 208:107849. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.107849, 8. Copyright © 2020 Chiappini, Guirguis, John, Corkery and Schifano. Analysis of Psychological and Sleep Status and Exercise Rehabilitation of Front-Line Clinical Staff in the Fight Against COVID-19 in China. Becker WC, Fiellin DA. The abuse potential of kratom according the 8 factors of the controlledsubstances act: implications for regulation and research. 22. This is a serious concern as kratom, not currently regulated as a dietary supplement, may be adulterated by unscrupulous traders and cause users to relapse to opioid use and inevitably experience a significant increase in overdose risk (7, 9, 14–17). Int J Geriatr Psychiatry (2006) 21(2):113–8. Singh D, Narayanan S, Vicknasingam B. Distributors who obtain a majority of their kratom product from Thailand were able to continue typical purchasing levels until February 2020, which resulted in a stockpile due to shop closures related to mandated lock-downs and social distancing. Reger MA, Stanley IH, Joiner TE. Frontiers’ story began in 2007, with the first journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. Consumer Alert on COVID-19 Claims and Kratom Haymarket, Haymarket, VA: American Kratom Association (2020). JH is an employee of Pinney Associates which provides consulting services on the development and regulation of pharmaceuticals, cannabinoids, and dietary supplements including kratom and advises the American Kratom Association on Kratom science. 34. Impact; Frontiers In and Loop are registered trade marks of Frontiers Media SA. Import Alert 54-15. here. Conversely, both peer-support groups and rehabilitation facilities have suspended programmes and limited new admissions (27, 32). Gunnell D, Appleby L, Arensman E, Hawton K, John A, Kapur N, et al. Synthetic drugs’ availability, such as methamphetamine, is drastically reduced due to air travel restrictions and flight cancellations, while cocaine, mostly trafficked by sea, continues to be detected in European ports during the pandemic (30). GOV.UK. Green TC, Bratberg J, Finnell DS. Evid Based Ment Health (2020) 23(2):45–6. (2018) 183:134–40. Introduction:There is concern the Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19 pandemic is having a negative impact on the mental health of the general population through a range of suggested mechanisms: fear, uncertainty, and anxiety; social distancing/isolation; loneliness; and economic repercussions (1-3). Virtually perfect? doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30171-1, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar, 2. European Monitoring Centre for Drug and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). Reasons for use primarily centered on alleviating stress or psychiatric disorder symptoms (e.g., anxiety and depression), or continuation of kratom as a means of addressing SUD symptoms. Supply and Use. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential. 7. ... Frontiers in Psychiatry. Drug Alcohol Depend. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.08.034, 11. See the latest science, research & news from Frontiers, an open access publisher of some of the world's most-cited journals including neuroscience, human neuroscience, immunology, plant science and more. (Accessed May 21, 2020). Received: 24 June 2020; Accepted: 05 November 2020; Published: 26 November 2020. A proactive approach to upscale our mental health care, emergency preparedness and response for people with SUDs is urgently needed; mental health services should develop and evaluate: clear remote assessment; care pathways for people at risk; psycho-education strategies, regarding self-harm/suicide, overdoses, and domestic violence; and staff training to support new ways of working (1, 7, 12). The primary alkaloid, mitragynine, has been shown to interact with μ-opioid receptors as a biased partial agonist leading to analgesia (3). For a better visualisation in mobile or tablet, please turn it horizontal. The problem worsened when enforcement agencies raided illegal kratom ports in the community—making it more difficult for opioid users and people with SUDs who were self-treating their dependence with kratom to obtain their regular supply. The COVID-19 pandemic is already impacting drug markets, including shortages of numerous types of drugs at the street level, price increases for consumers on the black market and reductions in purity. Smith K, Ostinelli E, Cipriani A. Covid-19 and mental health: a transformational opportunity to apply an evidence-based approach to clinical practice and research. Impact Factor. View all 24. Psychiatry, 26 November 2020 Published on 06 May 2020. Curr Opin Pediatr (2007) 19(3):270–4. The Journal Impact of an academic journal is a scientometric Metric that reflects the yearly average number of citations that recent articles … The impact factor (IF) 2018 of Frontiers in Psychiatry is 3.36, which is computed in 2019 as per it's definition.Frontiers in Psychiatry IF is increased by a factor of 0.32 and approximate percentage change is 10.53% when compared to preceding year 2017, which shows a rising trend. 30. Given disruptions described above, kratom users in Malaysia encountered problems obtaining their regular kratom supply. https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/covid-19-will-worsen-the-opioid-overdose-crisis-if-we-dont-prepare-now/ (Accessed May 25, 2020). Sethi R, Hoang N, Ravishankar DA, McCracken M, Manzardo AM. 20. Research topics. Brain Res Bull. Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs (ACMD). COVID-19-related disruptions in kratom availability may also influence or coerce regular users to try more harmful herbal, synthetic, or plant-based New Psychoactive Substances or even illicit drugs in self-managing their aggravating health conditions (24). Stress and sleep: a survey based on wearable sleep trackers among medical and nursing staff in Wuhan during the COVID-19 pandemic. Med Sci Monit Basic Res (2020) 26:e924085. It is crucial to strengthen telemedicine and support it with appropriate governance and funding in order to be able to monitor the mental health situation post-pandemic. 25. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The healthcare workers who experienced sleeplessness were also more likely to feel depressed, anxious and have stress-based trauma, according to the paper. The medicinal chemistry and neuropharmacology of kratom: a preliminary discussion of a promising medicinal plant and analysis of its potential for abuse. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. In the coming months, it will be important to monitor kratom supplies and purchasing avenues (e.g., Internet and local shops). The immediate mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic among people with or without quarantine managements. Compared with historical Journal Impact data, the Metric 2019 of World Psychiatry grew by 45.72% . Posted on October 14, 2020 in Featured News, Health By Nora Belblidia, science writer People who lose loved ones to terrorism are at a particularly high risk of developing Prolonged Grief Disorder, a condition characterized by severe and persistent longing for the deceased and reduced functioning in daily life. Impact Factor 2.849 | CiteScore 3.2More on impact ›, Drug and Behavioral Addictions During Social-Distancing for the COVID-19 Pandemic The number of kratom users outside of Southeast Asia has increased significantly in recent decades with use spreading to the Unites States (US) and Europe. Psychopharmacology (Berl). Compared with historical Journal Impact data, the Metric 2019 of Frontiers in Psychiatry grew by 10.53% . There is concern the Coronavirus Disease (COVID)-19 pandemic is having a negative impact on the mental health of the general population through a range of suggested mechanisms: fear, uncertainty, and anxiety; social distancing/isolation; loneliness; and economic repercussions (1–3). Wu K, Wei X. Monitoring psychosocial needs and delivering psychosocial support to vulnerable patients as well as healthcare workers should be provided (2, 3, 8, 42, 43). WellBeingTrust.org. Coe MA, Pillitteri JL, Sembower MA, Gerlach KK, Henningfield JE. Frontiers in Psychiatry publishes rigorously peer-reviewed research across a wide spectrum of translational, basic and clinical research. Supply and Use. Walton M, Murray E, Christian MD. The Journal Impact measures the average number of citations received in a particular year (2019) by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years (2017-2018). Biomed Res Int. Lancet Psychiatry (2020) 7(5):389–90. Hunger for Opioid Alternative Drives Boom in Borneo Jungle. The Journal Impact 2019 of Frontiers in Psychiatry is 3.360, which is just updated in 2020. doi: 10.3760/cma.j.cn121094-20200219-00063, 26. Because of its reputed opioid-like psychoactive effects at higher doses, kratom has been regulated in several countries and is subject to an import ban by the US Food and Drug Administration. www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/coronavirus.html. Front. Risks of severe COVID and intensified mental health issues in people who use drugs (PWUD) include: physical comorbidity, e.g., lung or cardiovascular disease, HIV, viral hepatitis infections; psychological comorbidity, e.g., general distress, sleep disorders, anxiety/mood disorders, psychotic symptoms; and homelessness, incarceration, economic difficulties, and socioeconomic issues deriving from drug addiction (8, 11, 27, 28). Among polydrug users and those with a history of SUD, kratom has also been consumed as a means of reducing use of or abstaining from dangerous prescription opioids and heroin (9, 10). Ann Intern Med (2020) 173(1):59–60. In an unexpected situation, if there is an imminent increase in kratom fatalities/toxicities arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, enforcement agencies may use the scenario as a precedent to legally or effectively ban kratom use. Opioid use disorder and the COVID 19 pandemic: A call to sustain regulatory easements and further expand access to treatment. Disrupted trade routes via sea or air have been reported for some kratom products, although it is unknown to what degree this has impacted global kratom supply to date. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth., Rubiaceae) is a tree native to Southeast Asia with psychoactive properties due to the presence of indole alkaloids (1, 2). Psychiatry Res (2020) 289:113105. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113105, 17. COVID-19 suicidal behavior among couples and suicide pacts: Case study evidence from press reports. Available online at: https://www.americankratom.org/mediak/news/consumer-alert-on-covid-19-claims-and-kratom.html (accessed November 4, 2020). Research Hotspot Click Each Keyword to Figure Out More . Ensuring mental health care during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic in France: A narrative review. Loop is the open research network that increases the discoverability and impact of researchers and their work. In response to the long-lasting and wide-ranging challenging effects of the pandemic (5, 12, 19, 27, 29), some harm-avoiding interventions have been adopted, including: more flexible take-home-medication treatment programmes for opioid addicted patients (33, 34); guidance for facilitating controlled substance prescribing (26, 29, 35); tele-health for monitoring drug-dependent patients; and access to virtual support groups through online meetings (15, 26, 32). *Correspondence: Oliver Grundmann, firstname.lastname@example.org; orcid.org/0000-0003-2302-8949, Front. Frontiers in Psychology has a decent Impact Factor and is one of the highly cited journals in the field, but the journal is not listed in the ABS journal quality guidelines. (2020) 22:19nr02507. FDA. doi: 10.1177/0269881119862530, 14. doi: 10.1177/2048872620922795, 23. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b00748, 4. (2020) 288:112954. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954. Suicide risk and prevention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Previous disasters such as the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in … AMA. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Psychiatry 11:574483. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.574483. Grundmann O. Dsouza DD, Quadros S, Hyderabadwala ZJ, Mamun MA. Many users feared that they may not have access to their usual products for the rest of the year. During the COVID pandemic, telehealth has demonstrated to enable continuity of services, while protecting service providers from infection. CDC, 2020; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 17 Silver Spring, MD: US Food & Drug Administration (2019). Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Psychiatry 11:602524. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.602524. COVID-19 information page (2020). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. 28. Thakur V, Jain A. COVID 2019-Suicides: A global psychological pandemic. 21. 15. WHO. One of its very first accepted articles, before the new journal was officially accepting submissions, was a theory on the origins of autism by journal founders Kamila and Henry Markram. Henningfield JE, Grundmann O, Babin JK, Fant RV, Wang DW, Cone EJ. En comparación con el Metric de Impacto histórico, el Metric de Impacto 2019 de Frontiers in Psychiatry creció un 10.53 %.El cuartil del Metric de impacto de Frontiers in Psychiatry es Q1. When Epidemics Collide: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the Opioid Crisis. Klomek AB. ISSN: 1664-1078 . Frontiers in Psychology Impact Factor, IF, number of article, detailed information and journal factor. 19. Do psychiatric patients experience more psychiatric symptoms during COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown? IF . Characteristics of deaths associated with kratom use. Recherche Populaire. Holmes EA, O’Connor RC, Perry VH, Tracey I, Wessely S, Arseneault L, et al. Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa): friend or foe? doi: 10.1007/s00213-017-4813-4, 17. Impact Factor: 2.118 ℹ Impact Factor: 2019: 2.118 The Impact Factor measures the average number of citations received in a particular year by papers published in the journal during the two preceding years. The implications of COVID-19 for people who use drugs (PWUD) and drug service providers (March 2020). https://www.epicentro.iss.it/en/coronavirus/sars-cov-2-stress-management-healthcare-workers (Accessed July 7, 2020). doi: 10.7326/M20-1210, 41. doi: 10.1080/14659891.2019.1638459, 7. Front. South Med J (2015) 108(3):151–7. https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf (Accessed May 24, 2020). doi: 10.14423/smj.0000000000000256, 39. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). (2019) 202:24–32. Specifically, COVID-19-related disruptions in kratom access/supply and use could increase the likelihood that users turn to more readily available, but more dangerous, products to self-treat symptoms they had primarily used kratom for. |, https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/dtac/srb_sept2015.pdf, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/covid-19-mental-health-campaign-launches, https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/mental-health-considerations.pdf, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/mental-health-healthcare.html, https://www.epicentro.iss.it/en/coronavirus/sars-cov-2-stress-management-healthcare-workers, www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/coronavirus.html, http://www.emcdda.europa.eu/publications/topic-overviews/covid-19-and-people-who-use-drugs_en, https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/05/1063512, https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/04/21/coping-with-the-collision-of-public-health-crises-covid-19-and-substance-use-disorders/, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/acmd-advice-on-covid-19-emergency-legislation-to-enable-supply-of-controlled-drugs, https://www.samhsa.gov/sites/default/files/faqs-for-oud-prescribing-and-dispensing.pdf, https://www.statnews.com/2020/03/17/covid-19-will-worsen-the-opioid-overdose-crisis-if-we-dont-prepare-now/, Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). Griffiths MD, Mamun MA. Supporting healthcare workers with appropriate equipment, training on telehealth and caring for their safety with respect to protection against infection and spread of infection, preventing violence and burglary in drug treatment services, pharmacies would enable robust support against a possible mental health wave post-pandemic. Etha Natural Botanicals, a distributor of kratom supply and personal contacts, we were alerted several! Without quarantine managements Impact Factor, IF, number of article, detailed information and Journal Factor, Hawton frontiers in psychiatry impact factor 2020. Their own methods for mitigating kratom withdrawal symptoms opioid analgesics with mu agonism and antagonism. Drugs in teens narrative review in Opioid-Related Overdose and Other Concerns during COVID pandemic Road! May 25, 2020 ) 9 ( 3 ):20com13370 for Disease control prevention! And first Responders: How to Cope with Stress and suicide After Disasters ( 2015 ) (! 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