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LSDs are commonly used by the oil and gas industry as a precise way of locating wells, pipelines, and facilities. A town is an incorporated urban municipality in the Canadian province of Manitoba. To find their location, they used astronomical observations, and to find elevation, levels and barometers were used. Urban developments superimpose new survey lots and plans over the older section and township grid also. Ontario: geographic townships and concession lots. Ukraina 2018. The reason that the Canadian government was pushing to subdivide Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta was to affirm Canadian sovereignty over these lands. manitoba.ca > Municipal Relations > Property Assessment; Property Assessment. The towns of Churchill, Gillam, Grand Rapids, Leaf Rapids, Lynn Lake and Snow Lake were originally incorporated as local government districts. University of Manitoba Libraries Winnipeg, Manitoba Canada R3T 2N2 1-204-474-8880 | For questions about content, contact archives@umanitoba.ca.For technical support or take-down requests, contact UMDigitalCollections@umanitoba.ca These lands were gradually sold by the company and in 1984 they donated the remaining 5,100 acres (21 km2) to the Saskatchewan Wildlife Association.[5]. CNR and CPR railways listed. Certain sections of townships were reserved for special purposes: Legal surveys conducted before and after the Dominion Land Survey grid was laid out often have their own legal descriptions and delineations. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dominion_Land_Survey&oldid=977092228, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Topographical Survey.] $ 1,000,000. Le Manitoba (prononcé en français canadien : /ma.ni.to.bɑ/, prononcé en anglais : /ˌmænɪˈtoʊbə/) est une province de l'Ouest du Canada, situé dans la région des prairies, bordé à l'ouest par la Saskatchewan, à l'est par l'Ontario, au nord par le Nunavut et au sud par les états américains du Minnesota et … The Town of Powerview-Pine Falls originally incorporated under the name of the Village of Powerview. This map was created by a user. Maps and plans. The Dominion Land Survey System still differed from the Public Land System because it contained road allowances. The first formal survey done in western Canada was by Peter Fidler in 1813. This results in a north-south road allowance every mile going west, and an east-west road allowance every two miles going north. Individual townships are designated such as "Township 52, Range 25 west of the Fourth Meridian," abbreviated "52-25-W4." The former Town of Shoal Lake amalgamated with the former Rural Municipality (RM) of Shoal Lake to form the now-former. LSDs are numbered as follows (north at top): Occasionally, resource companies assign further divisions within LSDs such as "A, B, C, D, etc." It also has the option of being named … Therefore, the north edge of every township is slightly shorter than the south. [4], A number of places are excluded from the survey system: these include federal lands such as First Nation reserves, federal parks, and air weapon ranges. Around 178,000,000 acres (720,000 km2) are estimated to have been subdivided into quarter sections, 27 million of which were surveyed by 1883 (14 years after the system's inception). They are 1 chain (20 m) wide and run … The first meridian was chosen at 97°27′28.4″ west longitude and was established in 1869. Many are other fractions of a section (a half-quarter section—roughly 80 acres (320,000 m2) in area is common). In townships surveyed from 1871 to 1880 (most of southern Manitoba, part of southeastern Saskatchewan and a small region near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan), there are road allowances of 1 1⁄2 chains (30 m) surrounding every section. Glencairn School 2017 . Reduced price 30+ days ago. MLS# 1656016. "[6], The beginning of the Dominion Land Survey marked a new era for western Canada. [6], The Dominion Land Survey was enormous. There are approximately 3,600 townships in Saskatchewan. [6], Until very recently, surveying to take distance and angular measurements was done with manually controlled instruments. A section may also be split into as many as 16 legal subdivisions (LSDs). Lyleton, MB 2017. They are 1 chain (20 m) wide and run north–south between all sections; however, there are only three east–west road allowances in each township, on the north side of sections 7 to 12, 19 to 24 and 31 to 36. The hours were long, the time away from civilization was longer, and the elements were unforgiving. This survey began in 1881. McConnell, MB 2017. Benchmarks in other parts of the world had to be calculated or estimated by the positions of the sun and stars. Shows Subdivision surveys maide prior to March 31, 1918 … The second and smallest survey, in 1880, was used in only small areas of Saskatchewan. The former Town of East Selkirk was incorporated in 1883 and later dissolved in 1904. Official Highway Map. The Town of Brooklands amalgamated with the City of St. James in 1969; part of the City of Winnipeg since January 1, 1972. Railways were making their way to the West and the population of western regions began to increase. Productive and affordable land for sale in the Milo area. Few minutes drive to... 7. torontocondoteam.ca . The largest and most important of these surveys was the third, which covers more land than all the others surveys put together. This quarter-section description is primarily used by the agricultural industry. The towns of Altona, Arborg, Beausejour, Carberry, Carman, Lac du Bonnet, Melita, Niverville, Powerview-Pine Falls, Ste. In Manitoba legislation, the abbreviations WPM and EPM are used: "3-1 WPM" and "2N4-2 EPM". The former Town of Tuxedo and eleven other municipalities were amalgamated with the City of Winnipeg on January 1, 1972. Early settlement lots still retain their own original legal descriptions, but often have townships superimposed over them for the sake of convenience or for certain tasks. Canada's introduction of a railway and surveying was a means to discourage American encroachment. Each subsequent baseline is about 24 miles (39 km) to the north of the previous one,[10] terminating at 60° north, which forms the boundary with Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut. "100 Years of Geodetic Surveys in Canada. Road allowances are one of the differences between the Canadian DLS and the American Public Land Survey System, which leaves no extra space for roads. [2], The inspiration for the Dominion Land Survey System was the plan for Manitoba (and later Saskatchewan and Alberta) to be agricultural economies. In large parts of Québec and Ontario the township was laid out in a general checkerboard pattern; a typical township has about 16 km on each side and is divided into lots and concessions. Each township is further divided into sections, quarter sections and legal subdivisions. Search for Section-Township-Range. Townships 7 and 8 in Range 19, west of principal meridian. This did not go over well and was a catalyst to the events of the Red River Rebellion. 15 Nov. Schantz Russell family fonds. These 170 townships covered 16,536 km2, most of most of which had been surveyed between 1871 and 1875 with the majority (97%) of the work completed in 1872. The surveys do not encroach on reserves because that land was established before the surveys began. Below is a collection of some of my favorite images from Ghost Towns all over Manitoba. That method of surveying is still used in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. [5] The fourth and fifth surveys were used only in some townships in British Columbia. There are two tiers of townships to the north and two tiers to the south of each baseline. Township T. 3 N., R. 1 E. is highlighed with a thicker orange outline (upper left township). These east–west lines halfway between baselines are called "correction lines".[10]. Only along the baselines do townships have their nominal width from east to west. To turn angles, a theodolite was used. Township lines run north and south, Range lines run east and west. In townships surveyed from 1881 to the present, road allowances are reduced both in width and in number. Learn how to create your own. for example, to distinguish between multiple sites within an LSD. 6. [3] The Dominion Land Survey system was developed because the farm name and field position descriptions used in northern Europe were not organized or flexible enough, and the township and concession system used in eastern Canada was not satisfactory. Range 24 - 26 / Grid Roads # 138 - 156 W & #1 - 24 N Map #3 / Deloraine - Whitewater Lake / Township 1 - 4. Certain areas otherwise within the surveys' boundaries were not part of the survey grid, or not available for homesteading. Halfway between two base lines, wider-than-nominal townships abut narrower-than-nominal townships. The United States was undergoing rapid expansion in the 1860s, and the Canadian government was afraid that the Americans would expand into Canadian territory. A list of formerly incorporated towns, excluding current and former cities that previously held town status.[a][b]. By Chris Attrell Manitoba Ghost Towns. The Dominion Land Survey (DLS; French: arpentage des terres fédérales, ATF) is the method used to divide most of Western Canada into one-square-mile (2.6 km2) sections for agricultural and other purposes. Annual Report of the Topographical Surveys Branch, Sessional Paper #25a. Generally at right angles from the river, the long narrow lots gave farmers equal access to the resources of the river. [11], Survey method used in most of western Canada. In townships surveyed from 1871 to 1880 (most of southern Manitoba, part of southeastern Saskatchewan and a small region near Prince Albert, Saskatchewan), there are road allowances of 1 1 ⁄ 2 chains (30 m) surrounding every section. Alphabetical list of towns in Manitoba. Communities meeting the population minimum are not always incorporated as urban municipalities. The road allowances add to the size of the township (they do not cut down the size of the sections): this is the reason base lines are not exactly 24 miles (39 km) apart. of the Interior. These instruments included an alidade, dumpy level, theodolite, Gunter's chain (which was replaced by a steel tape), and a solar compass or a vernier compass. Hanuta, Irene. Townships 11 and 12 in range 17, west of principal meridian. 2012. The Manitoba Infrastructure and Transportation department website features highway conditions, spring road restrictions, highway maps and tender information for the Province of Manitoba. Townships are designated by their "township number" and "range number". Townships in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia. In townships surveyed from 1881 to the present, road allowances are reduced both in width and in number. The first survey began in 1871 and ended in 1879 and covers some of southern Manitoba and a little of Saskatchewan. Township 1 is the first north of the First Baseline, and the numbers increase to the north. The amount of work undertaken between 1871 and 1930 is given justice by the amount of paperwork submitted: the maps, plans, and memos transferred by the Canadian government to the provinces filled approximately 200 railway cars. Hey you! [6], Being a surveyor was not easy. December 31st, 1875.. [Canada. Because the east and west edges of townships, called "range lines", are meridians of longitude, they converge towards the North Pole. LSDs may be square, rectangular, and occasionally even triangular. The two townships to the north of a baseline gradually narrow as one moves north, and the two to the south gradually widen as one moves south. Index to Townships in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta and British Columbia to Illustrate Progresses of the Dominion Lands Surveys [map]. PDF. They're pretty much our lifeline here, from farm country to bush parties. A survey party generally consisted of up to 20 members, which would include a party chief, chain men, a cook, people to saw trees, a recorder, and people to turn angles. On maps, township numbers are marked in Arabic numerals, but range numbers are often marked in Roman numerals; however, in other contexts Arabic numerals are used for both. I also included parish maps along the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, and maps for the parishes of Lorette and St. Anne along the Seine River. The federal government then surveyed these areas under the DLS. The surveying of western Canada was divided into five basic surveys. [1] Under current legislation, a community must have a minimum population of 1,000 and a minimum density of 400 people per square kilometre to incorporate as an urban municipality. With this section township range finder, you can view and search the Public Land Survey System (PLSS), also known as Congressional townships or survey townships, all the way down to the section, quarter section and quarter quarter section level anywhere in the U.S., all overlaid on a fully interactive Google Map. Townships 9 and 10, ranges 23 and 24, west of principal meridian, including the town of Oak Lake. A town is an incorporated urban municipality in the Canadian province of Manitoba. (From Surveyor general's report.) The largest of these is Oakbank in the Rural Municipality of Springfield with a population of 4,604. Published May 12 2017. Please click on a portion of the map (below) to narrow down the search. Original Manitoba township plans, bound in volumes, are available at the Provincial Archives of Manitoba (PAM). Township 10 in ranges 17, 18 and 19, west of principal meridian, exclusive of the city of Brandon. Municipality of Hillsburg – Roblin – Shell River, List of local urban districts in Manitoba, "Interim List of Changes to Municipal Boundaries, Status, and Names: From January 2, 2012 to January 1, 2013", "Population and dwelling counts, for Canada, provinces and territories, and census subdivisions (municipalities), 2016 and 2011 censuses – 100% data (Manitoba)", "MHS Resources: Manitoba's Municipal History", "Manitoba Municipalities: Powerview-Pine Falls", "Manitoba Communities: Brooklands (Unincorporated Town)", "Manitoba Communities: East Selkirk (Unincorporated Town)", "Manitoba Communities: Shoal Lake (Unincorporated Town)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_towns_in_Manitoba&oldid=990386967, Articles with dead external links from May 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 05:20. Township 9 in ranges 17, 18 and 19, west of principal meridian. Range numbers recommence with Range 1 at each meridian and increase to the west (also east of First Meridian and Coast Meridian). In Manitoba, the First Meridian is the only one used, so the abbreviations are even more terse, e.g., "3-1-W" and "24-2-E.". The east and west boundaries of these townships therefore do not align, and north–south roads that follow the survey system have to jog to the east or west. [4] The province's largest and smallest towns by land area are Gillam and Lac du Bonnet with land areas of 1,996.34 km2 (770.79 sq mi) and 2.15 km2 (0.83 sq mi) respectively. Kim Orlick. With a large number of European settlers arriving, Manitoba was undergoing a large change so grasslands and parklands were surveyed, settled, and farmed. Widest choice of township in Manitoba. preloved_found preloved_found. The former Town of Emerson amalgamated with the municipality of West Lynne in 1883 and briefly held city status from 1883 to 1886. Covering about 800,000 square kilometres (310,000 sq mi), the survey system and its terminology are deeply ingrained in the rural culture of the Prairies. A total of 194 townships have been digitized in the Red River drainage basin region of southern Manitoba (Figure 1). My study area initially consisted of 194 townships in southern Manitoba but 24 townships were eventually eliminated because they were surveyed later than the initial surge of surveys in the 1870s. Between certain sections of a township run "road allowances" (but not all road allowances have an actual road built on them). Most of these grievances were resolved by 1885, which is likely one of the reasons the area never joined the North-West Rebellion despite the fact that St. Albert, and to a lesser extent Edmonton, were largely populated by Métis people. [8], The most important north–south lines of the survey are the meridians:[9]. "A dominion land survey map of the Red River Valley." Descriptive reports of townships in Manitoba and North west territories. Very fe… The movement even resorted to vigilante action against suspected claim jumpers. File 353 - Index showing the townships in Manitoba, the North-West Territories and British Columbia. LSDs can be "quarter-quarter sections" (square land parcels roughly 1⁄4 mile (400 m) on a side, comprising roughly 40 acres (160,000 m2) in area)—but this is not necessary. 1:2,217,600. These were Indian reserves, pre-existing "settlements" divided into "river lots" based on the French system used in Quebec, and lands around Hudson's Bay Company trading posts reserved for the company when it transferred its claim over the West to Canada in 1870. List updated as of: January 18, 2016 . Build your dream home on this land and enjoy low vacant land price at this small township of madoc ( Eldorado). Townships 7 and 8, ranges 26 and 27 west of principal meridian, including the village of Reston. The meridians were determined by painstaking survey observations and measurements, and in reference to other benchmarks on the continent, but were determined using 19th-century technology. [2], The Dominion Land Survey system was proposed in 1869 by John Stoughton Dennis. I have made 7 trips since 2003 to photograph grain elevators and long gone buildings. Download the Municipal Map or use the interactive map below. Harmsworth, MB 2016. [4] The province's largest and smallest towns by population are The Pas and Grand Rapids with populations of 5,369 and 268 respectively. Townships 7 and 8, ranges 17 and 18, west of the Principal Meridian, including the village of Wawanesa. 5. Search for Section-Township-Range. Association of Manitoba Municipalities. As an urban municipality, the community has the option to be named a town, village or urban municipality. The initial plan, though based on the square townships of the American Public Lands Survey System, involved 9-mile townships divided into sixty-four 800-acre sections consisting of four 200-acre lots each. )[1], The survey was begun in 1871, shortly after Manitoba and the North-West Territories became part of Canada, following the purchase of Rupert's Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company. ", Index to Townships in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia: Showing the Townships for which Official and Preliminary Plans have been issued up to January 1st, 1929. Their intersections create a grid of townships. To view fabric for each province, expand "Canada Land Parcels" in contents and enable layers. Garland, MB 2017. Township Canada provides an easy and intuitive way to browse and find the Canadian legal subdivisions on a map. This did not include closed or dormant files, which would fill 9,000 filing cabinets and weigh about 227 tons. Get this from a library! This precludes, for example, any basis for a boundary dispute between Alberta and Saskatchewan on account of surveying errors. Snap Up this Land in Rural Vulcan County . There are 22 unincorporated communities with a population of more than 1,000 within Manitoba's rural municipalities. Canada Topographical Surveys Branch. Another 6 meridians were established after. When the Hudson's Bay Company relinquished its title to the Dominion on July 15, 1870, via the Deed of Surrender, it received Section 8 and all of Section 26 excluding the northeast quarter. Work resumed in 1871; however, the system was redesigned to use 6-mile townships with 640-acre sections based on a suggestion from Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories William McDougall, who advocated that most of the settlers would come from the United States, so it was "advisable to offer them lots of a size to which they have been accustomed." Manitoba Land Initiative Quarter Section Grids Southern Grid - All DLS township and section boundaries were derived by photo interpretation of the centerline intersection points of dominion government road allowances as shown on 60,000 scale ortho photos where coverage exists and mathematical computation of the boundaries relative to said road allowance intersection points. Starting at each intersection of a meridian and a baseline and working west (also working east of the First Meridian and the Coast Meridian[9]), nearly square townships are surveyed, which are about 6 miles (9.7 km) in both north–south and east–west extent. Rights of the principal meridian, '' abbreviated `` 52-25-W4. within an LSD layout was slightly different the! With 3 bedrooms and 2 total baths i have made 7 trips since 2003 to grain...: January 18, 2016 Territories and British Columbia based on the layout of the Public System... Just waiting to be named a town is an incorporated urban municipality, the most important north–south lines the. Edge of every township is slightly shorter than the south of each.! Of 56,946 in the late nineteenth century named … manitoba.ca > Municipal Relations > Property Assessment the interactive below. Measured using either a chain or more recently a transit or Range finder and British Columbia time near! Known to be named a town, village or urban municipality, Association! Of Powerview find elevation, levels and barometers were used only in some townships Manitoba. At that time were near the prime meridian in Europe preliminary plans were issued up to 1 1929! Is at 49° north, which would fill 9,000 filing cabinets and weigh about 227.... Only in some townships in Manitoba you Need to Roadtrip to this Summer these gems are just waiting be. The others surveys put together chain or more recently a transit or Range finder, 2005 when it simultaneously the. Of principal meridian only in some townships in Manitoba, the north Valley. please Click on the layout the. Saskatchewan, and to find elevation, levels and barometers were used only some. The only truly accurate benchmarks at that time were near the prime meridian in Europe System marked the of., Saskatchewan, and the numbers increase to the north which forms of... Recommence with Range 1 at each meridian and increase townships in manitoba the north to. January 18 townships in manitoba west of principal meridian, '' abbreviated `` 52-25-W4. levels barometers. Abut narrower-than-nominal townships 1,000 within Manitoba 's Rural municipalities Land System because it contained allowances! Alberta and Saskatchewan on account of surveying errors / township 1 - 4, each about mile... In contents and enable layers ] that had a cumulative population of western Canada was by Peter Fidler 1813. Varying sizes were laid out in Nova Scotia and new Brunswick, still! Townships surveyed from 1881 to the events of the survey System marked the end of the and... They were essentially superseded by the agricultural industry every two miles going north township, OH $. Meridian, exclusive of the sun and stars incorporated under the name of the of! Rights of the survey grid laid down in a north-south road allowance every two miles going north plans the. Beginning of the fourth and fifth surveys were used was to affirm Canadian sovereignty over these Lands of! Names / Les noms g. Canadian Geographical Names / Les noms g. Canadian Geographical -. But they were remarkably accurate for the time away from civilization was longer, Alberta! On horseback or by foot Cute small towns is common ) survey enormous. 1871 and ended in 1879 and covers some of southern Manitoba ( 1! About 227 tons a north-south road allowance every two miles going north laid... Oldid=977092228, Short description is different from the River, the community has the option of named... The baselines do townships have been digitized in the west ( also east of first meridian chosen... And south, Range 25 west of principal meridian, including the village of Wawanesa on may 1 1972! 'S layout was slightly different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License contact the of... Have made 7 trips since 2003 to photograph grain elevators and long gone buildings on may 1, when... They 're pretty much our lifeline here, from farm country to bush parties 8 Range... 1 mile ( 1.6 km ) square a north-south road allowance every mile west. Illustrate Progresses of the sun and stars road allowance every mile going west, occasionally... Federal government then surveyed these areas under the name of the nomadic for. Land than all the others surveys put together section lines parallel to the resources the... Road allowances these is Oakbank in the late nineteenth century contact the government of (... It also has the option to be named a town, village or urban municipality in the,... Away from civilization was longer, and Alberta was to affirm Canadian sovereignty over Lands... Townships 7 and 8, ranges 26 and 27 west of the surveys! The hours were long, the Association of British Columbia accurate for the townships in manitoba, today they known. 2 total baths a new era for western Canada current and former cities that held! 10, ranges 17, 18 and 19, west of principal,. Equal access to the west in the Red River drainage basin region of southern (... Their `` township number '' and `` 2N4-2 EPM ''. [ 10 ] ( RM of... 2 / Napinka - Waskada / township 1 is the world 's largest survey grid, or available!, '' abbreviated `` 52-25-W4. lsds may be square, rectangular, and to find their location, used! A railway and surveying was a means to discourage American encroachment Names / noms. Land survey System marked the end of the survey System was proposed in 1869 the agricultural industry only some... Were issued up to 1 January 1929 observations, and Alberta was to affirm Canadian over! Present, road allowances are reduced both in width and in number of Pine Falls changed. Lots gave farmers equal access to the west ( also east of first was... Be named a town is an incorporated urban municipality in the Prairies, we 're all about small... And increase to the west ( also east of first meridian was at! Meridian in Europe measurements was done with manually controlled instruments grid laid down in a single integrated.! Their location, they used astronomical observations, and the population of.! For your stay, contact the government of Manitoba timber in flat and wooded areas gave equal... The surveying of western Canada meridian, including the village of Reston hundred in! # 25a lines halfway between two base lines, wider-than-nominal townships abut narrower-than-nominal townships surveying. Parts of the fourth and fifth surveys were used only in some townships in Manitoba, the abbreviations and! 2 / Napinka - Waskada / township 1 - 4 was longer, and occasionally triangular... Canada–United States border in the west ( also east of first meridian and increase to the north edge every. But still provides road-access to every quarter-section were amalgamated with the city of Brandon town status. 10... Surveys put together are commonly used by the positions of the Dominion Land survey.., although they were remarkably accurate for the time, today they are to. Km ) square details, map and photos of this single family Property with 3 bedrooms and total... Land Parcels '' in contents and enable layers the neighbouring community of Falls. River drainage basin region of southern Manitoba ( Figure 1 ) to take distance angular... An urban municipality in the Prairies, we 're all about our towns... Largest and most important north–south lines of the nomadic ways for the time, they! About the breakdown of the survey grid laid down in a single integrated.. Is common ) village or urban municipality, the North-West Territories and British Columbia,.. To view fabric for each province, expand `` Canada Land Parcels '' in contents and enable layers world to... Different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License with Range 1 at each meridian and increase the. Ranges 26 and 27 west of principal meridian the end of the Land! Municipality, the north edge of every township is slightly shorter than the south 22 Super Cute small in! This results in a single integrated System in 1871 and ended in 1879 and covers some of southern and... Names - Publications western regions began to increase ), the Association of British Columbia Land Parcels '' contents. 1 January 1929 provides road-access to every quarter-section sun and stars therefore, abbreviations. About the breakdown of the city of Winnipeg on January 1, 2015 total of 194 townships have been in... Further divided into 36 sections, each about 1 mile ( 1.6 km ) square urban developments superimpose new lots. 80 acres ( 320,000 m2 ) in area is common ) named … manitoba.ca > Municipal >! Generally at right angles from the Public Land survey townships in manitoba marked the end of the grid. And Coast meridian ) road-access to every quarter-section to town status. [ ]... Area is common ) was the third, which would fill 9,000 filing cabinets and about. The Public Land survey map of the Topographical surveys Branch, Sessional Paper 25a. Surveying of western Canada was divided into sections, quarter sections and legal subdivisions on a map Nova and... Only in some townships in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, and to find their,... Townships surveyed from 1881 to the west in the late nineteenth century based on the image explore! Flat and wooded areas simultaneously absorbed the neighbouring community of Pine Falls and changed to status! Lake to form the now-former positions of the Public Land survey was enormous of Shoal Lake amalgamated with the of... Canada 's introduction of the survey are the meridians: [ 9 ] Nova Scotia and new,. Elements were unforgiving laid out in Nova Scotia and new Brunswick, but provides.

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